Matthiola is a genus of flowering plants in the mustard family. It was named after Pietro Andrea Mattioli. This genus contains about 48 to 50 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants and subshrubs. Many are cultivated for their heavily scented, colorful flowers.The common name stock may be applied to the whole genus, more specifically to varieties and cultivars of Matthiola incana. The common names evening stock and night-scented stock are applied to varieties of Matthiola longipetala (syn. M. bicornis). The common name Virginia stock refers to a separate genus of the same family (Malcolmia maritima).